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When Was Champa Rice Introduced To China?

When Was Champa Rice Introduced To China
Champa rice

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Champa rice is a fast-maturing, drought-resistant variety that may be harvested every sixty days. Champa rice originates from the subpopulation that shares characteristics with both and rice types. Champa rice likely originated in India and was imported to China in the late 10th century.

When was Champa rice first produced?

Song Dynasty China (960–1279  ad) – The agricultural technology in northern China advanced significantly faster than in other parts of China. However, beginning in the fourth century, there was a continuous movement southward, mainly towards the Yangtze region (Ho 1956 ).

Large-scale manufacture of iron implements facilitated the fast spread of rice planting in southeast China. Water management, farm equipment, draft animals, planting methods, weed and insect control, manure, seed selection, and, most importantly, human ingenuity were essential to the spread and enhancement of rice agriculture (Chang 2000 ).

The sustained development of the rice region led to an agricultural revolution comparable to the present green revolution. Faced with increasing population strain on the land, the early Song emperors continually urged the kingdom to develop and experiment with food crops (Ho 1956 ).

  1. In the year 1012, there was a severe drought in the Yangtze and Huai river valleys, as well as the eastern and western Zhejiang rice paddies.
  2. The emperor Zhenzong (992–1022) learned that Champa rice was resistant to drought, early maturing, and not photoperiod sensitive (Sharma, 2010).
  3. That is to say, its ripening was not determined by the day length or period of sunlight).
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Special envoys were dispatched to Fujian Province to acquire 30,000 bushels of seed and give it to farmers in drought-stricken areas, along with growing instructions from the government (Ho 1956 ). The rice arrived in China from what is now central Vietnam, the Champa Kingdom.

  1. Nobody knows when Champa rice arrived in Fujian province.
  2. Some believe it was as early as the eighth century, but considerable interest in Champa rice in China began in 1012.
  3. Ho 1956 ).
  4. Unlike the prevalent variety at the time, Champa rices initially produced lesser yields than the majority of conventional Chinese types.

However, farmers chose and created higher-yielding cultivars to cultivate in well-watered lowland areas (Bray 1986 ).

When did China begin growing rice?

Wild rice and its domestication – Paddy field in Yunnan’s south-west China is among the majority of key domestication centres and rice-producing regions in the globe. With different evidence, the surrounding regions of the Yangtze River and the Yunnan-Guizhou highlands of Southern China are the domestication centres, based on the notion that wild rice is largely found in Southern China, where the Yangtze River is primarily located.

The Yunnan-Guizhou highland is home to more than 10,000 rice landraces, as well as the three wild rice species (O. Rufipogon, O. Officinalis, and O. Mereriana), and is recognized as the location with the greatest genetic variety. Over time, these cultivars changed in response to climatic and agricultural circumstances to become O.

sativa and the subspecies japonica and indica. Additionally, as more rice phytoliths are identified in Hemudu, Diaotonghuan, Xianrendong, and Shangshan – all places bordering the Yangtze River — these regions are the geographic birthplace of domesticated wild rice in China.

  1. According to archaeological evidence, rice was cultivated for the first time approximately 7000 BCE in areas surrounding the Yangtze River Valley and the Yellow River.
  2. These regions were home to Neolithic sites such as Hemudu (6800-5000 B.C.), Luojiajiao (5100-4000 B.C.), Caoxieshan (4000-3900 B.C., and Songze (circa 4000 BC).
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Yuchanyan (13,000 to 6,000 B.C.), Xianrendong, and Diaotonghuan have yielded rice artifacts that are older (12000-9000 BC). Terraced Rice Fields in Yangshuo, China The domestication of rice was recognized by the loss of seed color and breaking, the reduction of seed dormancy, and the modification of seed shape.

Who delivered rice to China?

New Rice Varieties According to Buddhist monk Shu Wenying, Song Emperor Zhengzhong (998-1022), upon learning that Champa rice was drought-resistant, dispatched special envoys to China with samples.