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Champa rice is a fast-maturing, drought-resistant variety that can be harvested every sixty days. Champa rice originates from the subpopulation that shares characteristics with both and rice varieties. Champa rice likely originated in India and was introduced to China in the late 10th century.
Where does Champa rice come from?
Song Dynasty China (960–1279 ad) – The agricultural technology in northern China advanced significantly faster than in other regions of China. However, beginning in the fourth century, there was a steady migration southward, particularly into the Yangtze region (Ho 1956 ).
- Large-scale production of iron tools facilitated the rapid expansion of rice cultivation in southeast China.
- Water control, farm implements, draft animals, planting methods, weed and pest control, manure, seed selection, and, most importantly, human innovation were essential to the expansion and improvement of rice cultivation (Chang 2000 ).
The continued development of the rice region led to an agricultural revolution comparable to the modern green revolution. Faced with increasing population pressure on the land, the early Song emperors repeatedly urged the nation to improve and experiment with food crops (Ho 1956 ).
In the year 1012, there was a severe drought in the Yangtze and Huai river valleys, as well as the eastern and western Zhejiang rice paddies. The emperor Zhenzong (992–1022) learned that Champa rice was resistant to drought, early maturing, and not photoperiod sensitive (Sharma, 2010). (that is to say, its ripening was not determined by the day length or period of sunlight).
Special envoys were dispatched to Fujian Province to acquire 30,000 bushels of seed and distribute it to farmers in drought-stricken areas, along with cultivation instructions from the government (Ho 1956 ). The rice arrived in China from what is now central Vietnam, the Champa Kingdom.
Nobody knows when Champa rice arrived in Fujian province. Some say it was as early as the eighth century, but widespread interest in Champa rice in China began in 1012. (Ho 1956 ). Unlike the prevalent varieties of the time, Champa rices initially produced lower yields than the majority of traditional Chinese varieties.
However, farmers chose and developed higher-yielding varieties to cultivate in well-watered lowland fields (Bray 1986 ).
Jasmine Rice – Thai Hom Mali Rice, also known as Jasmine Rice, is the most well-known rice of Thai origin due to its distinctive aroma and slightly tender texture. The best Jasmine rice is grown in Thailand’s northeast.
What significance does Champa rice have?
Champa rice belongs to the category of indica rice. Numerous accessions of Champa rice mature quickly and are resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Some are essential components of the ‘green revolution’ and have played a significant role in the modern breeding program.